There are 3 kinds of ancient jade identification methods
The identification method of ancient jade has the following three methods :
a) ethical ethics
Among the hundred gardens of ancient Chinese culture and art, the most mysterious and varied. Nothing is jade. This is not only because of the long history of jade, the richness of materials, the quality, the quality of the carvings, the richness of the shape, and the wide range of uses. Other cultures and arts can't be compared with it. Because of the diversification of ancient and modern Chinese and foreign collectors, connoisseurs, and research experts, the methods of distinguishing jade are different, each has its own merits.
Chinese jade articles have lasted for seven thousand years. One of the main reasons for the development of Chinese art with strong national characteristics is that Chinese people compare human morality to jade. Personalize jade as an evaluation and discriminate one's behavior as good and evil. The standard of morality. Distinguishing jade from the stone is an ordinary civilian, and the jade is theoretically morally interpreted. It is a Confucian scholar and has always influenced the development of Chinese jade for thousands of years. Jade is not hidden, and the table is like a part; jade is beautiful and beautiful, indicating that people pursue a better life; jade is immortal, indicating that people have firm beliefs, ideals and goals. In short, human will, character, can be compared to jade.
The concept of jade's eleven virtues and five virtues is also reflected in the Chinese characters. The words such as jade, jade, jade, jade, etc. all use the characteristics of jade to describe the virtues of human beings. Therefore, "the gentleman has no reason, jade does not go away" Peiyu became a literary and literate representation of the scholar-officials. So what exactly does Yude mean? The ancients talked about jade, "the first German character", "de" actually refers to the texture and character of jade, and the Confucian concept of jade is the moral concept that rises from the natural attribute of jade to the norm of Confucian behavior. "Fu" refers to the color of jade.
2) Identifying jade and beauty with color
In the ancient times of underdeveloped science, the distinction between jade and jade from stone can only be based on experience, based on intuition, and based on the preferences and public beliefs of the majority. The most intuitive form of Shi Zhigong is the appearance of the colorful colors of jade, so the color of jade and the glory of jade have become an important criterion for people to distinguish the advantages and disadvantages of jade.
The famous mineralogist Zhang Hongjun pointed out in his famous "Shi Ya": "The ancients discerned the stone, and the emphasis was on the color rather than on the quality. The color is similar, the name is constant." "The use of color to distinguish jade gems has become an important basis for the classification and grading of jade gems. So far, in the mineralogical world, the craftsmanship still uses the names of rubies, emeralds, sapphires, white jade, topaz, sapphire, ink jade, silver crystal, etc. Color distinguishes jade gems.
The jadeites also pay great attention to the color of jade, and they are classified and named. They have the saying of â€œThirteen Colorsâ€, and the sayings of the nine primary colors of jade, such as the water of the Yuan, the blue as the foam, the blue as the fresh moss. There are also green such as green feathers, yellow as steamed chestnuts, red as dansha, white as cut fat and so on. These are all named after the color.
From the jade color, you can also distinguish the pros and cons of jade. On the basis of a review of the predecessor's jade theory, Zhao Yuzhen, author of the "Guide of Ancient Curtains", pointed out that jade is white, yellow and blue jade are also expensive. The white jade is the most expensive jade, and the topaz is like the new peeled ripe chestnut, which is called the golden topaz. Jasper, its color is as green as blue. Wang Xinyao said in "Yu Ji Bu": "Every black star in Jasper has non-green non-green, such as the leaf of the defeated leaf, which is called the vegetable jade, the best of the jade." In the Qing Dynasty, the jade white The fat is the jade, the green is the jade, the red is the coral, the blue is the lapis lazuli. This is the grade of jade gems divided by color.
Different jade colors have different uses. "Zhou Li" æ›°: "To make six things with jade. To the heavens and the earth, to the heavens and the earth, to the heavens, to the Huang Qiong, to the Qing Dynasty, to the south, to the south, to the west, to the black, to the spirits North." The Qing Dynasty "The Examination of the Festival" contains: 'The emperor is decorated with beads. But the Temple of Heaven uses lapis lazuli, the altar is shot with honey, the altar uses coral, and the altar is turquoise. "Either choose jade that is similar to the heavens and the earth, the sun and the moon, and the east, west, and north, for the sake of worship and wear.
In the Chinese characters, there are some special words that describe jade colors, such as jade, jade, jade, jealousy, and Qiongcai.
c) Use the device to distinguish jade
In ancient times, there was a famous philosophical saying that "Jade is not a weapon", but the custom of being along the custom is the same as the jade. A "Jade" word contains the concepts of jade and jade. Jade is an uncut raw material, and jade is an artifact that has been honed. The material and the device are two concepts that cannot be compared, but they are often the same. "Book of Rites" cloud: "Dagui is not awkward, beauty is also good." The same name is called jade, the actual is determined by the characteristics of jade, the beauty of jade, in its quality, by its quality, this with ceramic art heavy type The re-decoration is different. In the beauty of jade, the beauty of the material is the foundation. With the beauty of the material, it has the beauty of the shape, the beauty of the ornamentation, the beauty of the craft, and the specific jade is also humanistic. If a piece of jade is a secondary material, even if it is the best, it is not good. If it is a precious jade material, even if the engraver is under fire, it is still a treasure. In the Warring States period, the story of the king and the king of Chu was emphasized. The emphasis is on the beauty of the material of jade, and the beauty of the material of jade is the beauty of the soul. Today, people still follow the ancient traditions, and they are also known as the jade. There are many titles such as "The Forbidden City Collection of Jade", "The Ancient Jade New", "The Ancient Jade Elite", etc.
In the past two or three decades, Chinese archaeology has made remarkable achievements, and the achievements of jade archaeology are glorious. There are satisfactory results in the use of jade articles. The discovery of the Yuqing culture market Yuzhu not only pushed the time of Yuqiongâ€™s appearance from the Zhouhan period to the Neolithic age, but also corrected the traditional mistakes of Yuqiongâ€™s Chen set, confirming that the correct method should be that the small head is on the head. At the same time, it is also confirmed that the early jade traces are used for both sacrifices and corpses.
The discovery of Yulong in the northeast Hongshan culture has brought the birth of the Chinese dragon to 6,000 years ago, and also found the "female family" for the Shang Dynasty Yulong. The unearthing of the complete jade clothing in the Han Dynasty reveals the appearance of the "Jade" written in "Historical Records" and "Han Shu". It also confirms that the history books have the reliability of the points of gold, silver and bronze. The silk jade robes unearthed from the tomb of Nanyue King in Guangzhou indicate that the Han Dynasty also used ribbons to compile jade clothes, and it can also supplement the documents recorded in the literature.
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